Empathy is the tool that enables us to build products that empower a user to easily complete a task.
The Section 508 Standards apply to electronic and information technology procured by the federal government, including computer hardware and software, websites, multimedia such as video, phone systems, and copiers. The Section 255 Guidelines address access to telecommunications products and services, and apply to manufacturers of telecommunication equipment.
As part of our federal contract agreement with HRSA, we are obligated to maintain a distinct level of digital accessibility compliance with OPTN.gov. As stated by the section 508 amendment, any federal website or system must abide by the rules and guidelines as specified by law. Failure to meet 508 compliance can lead to poor user experience, and even worse - legal ramifications.
Additionally, statistics reported in 2017 identified nearly 12.6% of Americans live with some sort of disibility. These imparements can range on all levels of severity and impact the following areas: visual, auditory, physical, speech, congnitive, language, learning, and neurological. UNOS strives to maintain WCAG compliance in order to make out information and applications accessible to all.
The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, or WCAG, is developed through the World Wide Web Consortium, or W3C, process in cooperation with individuals and organizations around the world, with a goal of providing a single shared standard for web content accessibility that meets the needs of individuals, organizations, and governments internationally.
The WCAG documents explain how to make web content more accessible to people with disabilities. Web “content” generally refers to the information in a web page or web application, including:
UNOS adheres to the success criteria listed in WCAG 2.0, which has been adopted as an ISO standard. WCAG 2.0 contains a set of guidelines that are organized under 4 principles. Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, Robust. For each guideline, there are testable success criteria which is at three levels: A, AA, AAA. At this time, UNOS stives for success with WCAG 2.0 A and AA.
Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive the information.
Provide text alternatives for any non-text content. Review the approach
Non-text content: All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below. (Level A)
Provide alternatives for time-based media. Review the approach
Audio-only and video-only: For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such: (Level A)
Captions: Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)
Audio description or media alternative: An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)
Captions: Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media. (Level AA)
Audio description: Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AA)
Sign language: Sign language interpretation is provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media. (Level AAA)
Extended audio description: Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allow audio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AAA)
Media alternative: An alternative for time-based media is provided for all prerecorded synchronized media and for all prerecorded video-only media. (Level AAA)
Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media that presents equivalent information for live audio-only content is provided. (Level AAA)
Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure. Review the approach
Info and relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)
Meaningful sequence: When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. (Level A)
Sensory characteristics: Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound. (Level A)
Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background. Review the approach
Use of Color: Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element. (Level A)
Audio Control: If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level. (Level A)
Contrast (minimum): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following: (Level AA)
Resize text: Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality. (Level AA)
Images of Text: If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following: (Level AA)
Contrast (enhanced): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following: (Level AAA)
Low or No Background Audio: For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true: (Level AAA)
Visual Presentation: For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following: (Level AAA)
Images of Text (No Exception): Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed. (Level AAA)
User interface components and navigation must be operable.
Make all functionality available from a keyboard. Review the approach
Keyboard: All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints. (Level A)
No Keyboard Trap: If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away. (Level A)
Keyboard (No Exception): All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes. (Level AAA)
Provide users enough time to read and use content. Review the approach
Timing Adjustable: For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true: (Level A)
Pause, Stop, Hide: For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true: (Level A)
No Timing: Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events. (Level AAA)
Interruptions: Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency. (Level AAA)
Re-authenticating: When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating. (Level AAA)
Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures. Review the approach
Three Flashes or Below Threshold: Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds. (Level A) Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion.
Three Flashes: Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period. (Level AAA)
Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are. Review the approach
Bypass Blocks: A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. (Level A)
Page Titled: Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose. (Level A)
Focus Order: If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability. (Level A)
Link Purpose (In Context): The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level A)
Multiple Ways: More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process. (Level AA)
Headings and Labels: Headings and labels describe topic or purpose. (Level AA)
Focus Visible: Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible. (Level AA)
Location: Information about the user's location within a set of Web pages is available. (Level AAA)
Link Purpose (Link Only): A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level AAA)
Section Headings: Section headings are used to organize the content. (Level AAA)
Information and the operation of the user interface must be understandable.
Make text content readable and understandable. Review the approach
Language of Page: The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined. (Level A)
Language of Parts: The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text. (Level AA)
Unusual Words: A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon. (Level AAA)
Abbreviations: A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available. (Level AAA)
Reading Level: When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available. (Level AAA)
Pronunciation: A mechanism is available for identifying specific pronunciation of words where meaning of the words, in context, is ambiguous without knowing the pronunciation. (Level AAA)
Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. Review the approach
On Focus: When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context. (Level A)
On Input: Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component. (Level A)
Consistent Navigation: Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. (Level AA)
Consistent Identification: Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently. (Level AA)
Change on Request: Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes. (Level AAA)
Help users avoid and correct mistakes. Review the approach
Error Identification: If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text. (Level A)
Labels or Instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. (Level A)
Error Suggestion: If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content. (Level AA)
Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data): For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true: (Level AA)
Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.
Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies. Review the approach
Parsing: In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features. (Level A) Note: Start and end tags that are missing a critical character in their formation, such as a closing angle bracket or a mismatched attribute value quotation mark are not complete.
Name, Role, Value: For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. (Level A) Note: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.